Where is Mother Going by Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, 1797-1798
The mahmil *.
From L’Afrique pittoresque (picturesque Africa), selected passages by Victor Tissot, Paris, 1890.
* Mahmil (often written as Mahmel or Mahmal) is used for a palanquin or camel litter. Traditionally, a camel with a decorated litter was often sent to Mecca around the Hajj season by the head of a Muslim state to indicate his assumption of rule. The mahmil was therefore a symbol both of the sovereignty and legitimacy of the ruler. For the Ottoman surre procession, the mahmil was also used as a term for the vehicles or camel litters containing the surre and presents sent by the sultan.
Middle Eastern Studies,
Vol. 41, No. 2, 193 – 200, March 2005